Biogeochemical Cycles

Biogeochemical Cycles

A biogeochemical cycle is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (living world) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere – non-living) components of Earth. Such cyclic flow involves the transfer of matter and energy between the different components of the biosphere.

Natural Resources

Natural Resources

Resources provided by nature on Earth which can be utilized by living organisms to sustain their life are called natural resources. These include air, water, soil, sunlight, minerals, etc. All these resources are found accumulated in different layers of Earth.

Food Resources

Food Resources_mod

There are various types of food resources available to man. Here we discuss how to improve crop yield and animal husbandry to increase food resources available to man.

Disease and Its Causes

Diseases and their causes

Disease refers to any condition that disturbs or modifies the normal functioning of the living organisms. Each organ system of our body has specific organs to perform particular functions. In the presence of a disease, functioning or the appearance of one or more systems of the body may change. These changes give rise to symptoms and signs of disease.

Health – the Basics

Health_the basics

Health is the state of proper functioning of body and mind. Any malfunctioning at the level of cells, organs or organ systems can be caused by various agents/factors.

Classification in Plants

Classification in Plants

First level of classification among plants depends on whether the plant body possesses well-differentiated distinct cellular components or not. Next level is based on the presence or absence of special vascular tissues for the transport of water and other substances. Further classification takes into account the ability to bear seeds and whether seeds are enclosed within the fruits or not.

Depending on these characteristics, kingdom-Plantae is divided as of Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms.

Classification in Animals

Classification in Animals

Animals are the eukaryotic, multicellular and heterotrophic organisms. Their cells do not have cell walls and most of them are mobile. Kingdom-Animalia is thus classified on the basis of the extent and type of body design.

Animal Tissues

Animal Tissues_mod

Based on morphology, animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types. Multiple tissue types comprise organs and body structures. While all animals can generally be considered to contain the four tissue types, the manifestation of these tissues can differ depending on the type of organism.

The four basic Animal Tissues are: (i) Epithelial Tissue; (ii) Connective Tissue; (iii) Muscular Tissue; and (iv) Nervous Tissue.

Plant Tissues

Plant tissues_mod

The tissue is a group of cells. The cells in a tissue can be similar or different. The groups of cells thus formed carry specific functions. A group of different tissues makes an organ. There are two types of tissues : (i) Plant Tissue; and (ii) Animal Tissue.

Cell Structure

Cell Structure

A cell consists of three parts: the cell membrane, the nucleus, and, between the two, the cytoplasm. Within the cytoplasm lie intricate arrangements of fine fibers and hundreds or even thousands of miniscule but distinct structures called organelles. Here we cover them all.

Structure of Atom

Structure of Atom

Atom consists of electrons, protons and neutrons. There is an interesting story on how electrons, protons and neutrons were discovered and how the structure of atom has come to be. It’s worth knowing about the fundamental particles of matter.

Atoms & Molecules


Yes, this is all about how atoms combine to form molecules. Combination of atoms to form molecules can be explained by various laws. We not only cover these Laws, but see how actually atoms combine to form molecule, symbols and formula of atoms and molecules and various ways of expressing their masses.

Is the Matter around us Pure

Matter is composed of Solids, Liquids and Gases.  For a better understanding of Matter, there is a need to differentiate it on the basis of composition.  On the basis of composition, matter can be classified as:

(i) Pure substances; and


Soaps & Detergents

To achieve effective cleaning, it is helpful to have a basic knowledge of soap and detergent chemistry.  Here we learn the composition of soaps and detergents and their cleaning action.

Carbon – An unique element

Carbon is the most versatile element known to man.  It is the source of Organic Compounds- believed can only be distilled for living things.  Man is a carbon-based animal and our world revolves around it.  Here’s a look at why carbon is so important to us.

Periodic Classification of Elements

The Periodic Table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, organized on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations (electron shell model), and recurring chemical properties.

Chemical Bases

Bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, are slippery to the touch, taste bitter, change the colour of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.


Acid is any substance that in water solution tastes sour, changes the colour of certain indicators (e.g., reddens blue litmus paper), reacts with some metals (e.g., iron) to liberate hydrogen and reacts with bases to form salts. They give H+ ions in aqueous solution.

Acids, Bases and Salts – the Basics

To understand Acids, Bases and Salts we need to understand first, how to differentiate between these three category of compounds. So here in the Basics, we start with Indicators, which when used can differentiate between Acids, Bases and Salts and then move to a more scientific method used in the pH Scale. If you want to know more…Read on.

Types of Chemical Reactions

We cover the 5 types of reactions. They are Combination Reaction, Decomposition Reaction, Displacement Reaction, Double Displacement Reaction, Redox Reaction. We also cover the causes of corrosion in Metals and Rancidity in eatables. Read on to find more.

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