Q1. What are the many different ways in which glucose is oxidised to provide energy in various organisms?             

Q2. Describe the breathing process in human beings. 

Q3.   (i) Draw a schematic representation of transport and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide during transportation of blood in human beings and label following parts on it.

Lung to capillaries, pulmonary artery to lungs, aorta to body, pulmonary veins from lungs.

        (ii)  What is the advantage of having separate channels of heart for oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?           

Q4.  What according to you is the advantage of having a four- chambered heart?

Q5.         (i)  Draw   the structure of a nephron and label the following parts on it.

(a) Renal artery  

(b) Bowman’s capsule

(c) Glomerulus   

(d) Collecting duct

               (ii)  Name four substances in the initial filtrate which are selectively reabsorbed as the filtrate floor along the tubule.

Q6. Waste products of plants are useful for human beings. Is it true? Explain.

Q7. (a) State the form in which the following are stored:

(i)   Unused carbohydrates in plants

(ii)  The energy derived from food in humans.

       (b) Describe the process of nutrition in Amoeba with the help of diagram.

       (c) How does Paramecium obtain its food?

Q8. (i) Name the process and explain the type of nutrition found in green plants. List the raw materials required for this process. Give chemical equation for the mentioned process.

        (ii) Write three events that occur during this process.

Q9. (a) Write the reaction that occurs when glucose breaks down anaerobically in yeast.

         (b) Write the mechanism by which fishes’ breath in water.

         (c) Name the balloon likes structures present in lungs. List its two functions.

         (d) Name the respiratory pigment and write its role in human beings.

Q10. (a) Draw diagram of cross-section of the human heart and label the following parts:

(i)   Right ventricle

(ii)   Aorta

(iii)  Left atrium

(iv)  Pulmonary arteries.

          (b) Give reasons for the following:

(i) The muscular walls of ventricles are thicker than the walls of atria.

(ii) Arteries have thick elastic walls.

Q11. (a) Mention any two components of blood.

            (b) Trace the movement of oxygenated blood in the body.

           (c) Write the function of valves present in between atria and ventricles.

           (d) Write the structural difference between the composition of artery and veins.

Q12. (a) Draw a diagram of human excretory system and label the following parts on it:

(i) Right Renal Artery       

(ii) Vena cava.

(iii) Urinary bladder  

(iv) Left kidney

           (b) List two vital functions of the kidney.   

Q13. (a) Define excretion.

            (b) Name the basic filtration unit present in the kidney.

            (c) Draw excretory system in human being and label the following organs of excretory system which perform following functions:

(i) form urine

(ii) is a long tube which collects urine from kidney.

(iii) store urine until it is passed out.

 Q14. (a) Draw a diagram of human excretory system and label the following:

(i)  part in which urine is produced

(ii)  part which stores the urine

(iii) part which connects (i) and (ii)

(iv) part from which urine is passed out.

           (b) Name the factors on which the amount of water reabsorbed along the tubular part of nephron depend on?

Q15. (a) In which form are oxygen and CO2 transported in the blood?

            (b) What happens to the muscles of the diaphragm, the external intercostal muscles and the position of diaphragm during inspiration and expiration?

           (c) Why do the walls of trachea not collapse, when there is less air in it?

Q16.  Santosh told his father that plants give out a lot of water in the form of vapour through leaves. Define this process.  What is its importance? How do stomata help in this process?

Q17.  Explain the digestion of a roti in human beings. Draw a diagram depicting human alimentary canal.

Q18.       Name a circulatory fluid in the human body other than blood. State its functions. How does it differ from blood?

Q19.       Explain how deoxygenated blood travel from body to lung for purification. Draw well-labelled diagram in support of your answer.         

Q20.       Plants absorb water from the soil. How does this water reach to the top of the tree? Explain in detail.

Q21.       (i)  How does food prepared by leaves is utilised by roots? Explain.

                 (ii)  Water is absorbed by roots and lost through leaves. How does this happen?

Q22.    What is the difference between excretion and defecation? Explain the process of excretion in humans.


Q1. Name various plant hormones. Also give their physiological effects on plant growth and development.      

Q2.  Why do we call pituitary gland as the master gland? Where is it located and what are its functions?

Q3.   (i)  What are animal hormones?  List their two characteristics.

           (ii)   Name the hormone,

(a) which brings change in male humans during the beginning of adolescence.

(b) which coordinates the level of sugar in blood?                           

Q4.   ‘Nervous and hormonal systems together perform the function of control and coordination in human beings.’ Justify the statement.            

Q5.  Why is the flow of signals in a synapse from axonal end of one neuron to dendritic end of another neuron, but not the reverse?            

Q6.   What are plant hormones? Give four different types of plant hormones and state their functions briefly.

Q7.   (a) Draw the structure of a neuron and label the following on it:

(i)   Dendrite

(ii)   Cell body

(iii) Nucleus

(iv) Axon

          (b) Name the parts of a neuron:

(i) Where information is acquired.

(ii) Through which information travels as an electrical impulse.

Q8.  Where this impulse must be converted into a chemical signal for onward transmission.

Q9.  Define neuromuscular junction.

Q10.  (a) What is the function of mind-brain?

             (b) Name the three different parts of hind brain and give one function of each.

Q11. (a) Name two hormones secreted by pancreas. Write one function of each hormone.

            (b) How does our body respond when adrenaline is secreted into the blood?

             (c) Cite an example to explain the feedback mechanism for regulation of hormonal secretion.

Q12. (a) Draw the structure of neuron and label cell body and axon.

            (b) Name the part of neuron:

                          (i)   Where the information is acquired.

                          (ii)  Through which information travels as an electrical impulse.

Q13.  With labelled diagram, describe an activity to show that gravity changes the direction of a plant part. Also, describe geotropism in simple words.

Q14. With the help of a labelled diagram, illustrate the pathway of response when someone pricks in your hand with a pin.

Q15. Nerves and hormones both are used to control processes within the body. Using examples, show how   nervous control and hormonal control

                    (i)   resemble and 

                   (ii)   differ from one another.


Q1.  Reproduction is essentially a phenomenon that is not for the survival of an individual, but for the stability of a species. Justify.           

Q2. Differentiate between the following:

(i)  Pollen tube and style

(ii)   Fission in Amoeba and Plasmodium

(iii) Fragmentation and regeneration

(iv)  Bud of Hydra and Bryophyllum

(v)  Vegetative propagation and spore formation.

Q3.  Draw the diagram of a flower and label the four whorls. Write the names of gamete producing organs in the female.

Q4. Describe the menstrual cycle.

Q5. Differentiate between the following:

(i) Pollen tube and style

(ii) Fission in Amoeba and Plasmodium

(iii) Fragmentation and regeneration

(iv) Bud of Hydra and bud of Bryophyllum

(v) Vegetative propagation and Spore formation

Q6. (a) What is variation? How is variation created in a population? How does the creation of variation in a species promote survival?

         (b) Explain how, offspring and parents of organisms reproducing sexually have the same number of chromosomes.

Q7. (a) What is pollination? Give its two types.

         (b) Draw a longitudinal section of female reproductive part of a flower showing germination of pollen grain. Label on it the following:

(i) Stigma;

(ii) Pollen tube with a male germ cell;

(iii) Female germ cell.

Q8. (a) Name the parts labelled as A, B, C and D in the diagram given below:

         (b) What is pollination? State its significance.

         (c) How does fertilization occur in flowers?

Name the parts of the flower that develop into (i) seed, and (ii) fruit after fertilization.

Q9.  What is pollination? How does it occur in plants? How does pollination lead to fertilization? Explain.

Q10. (a) Name the human male reproductive organ that produces sperms and also secretes a hormone. Write the functions of the secreted hormone.

           (b) Name the parts of the human female reproductive system where:

(i) Fertilization takes place

(ii) Implantation of the fertilised egg occurs.

           (c) Explain how the embryo gets nourishment inside the mother’s body.

Q11. (a)  Name   the respective part   of human female reproductive system:

(i) that produces eggs,

(ii) where fusion of eggs and sperm takes place, and

(iii) where zygote gets implanted.

         (b) Describe in brief what happens to the zygote after it gets implanted.

Q12. (i) Name a sexually transmitted disease and a method to avoid it.

(ii) Drawn a neat diagram of human male reproductive system and label the parts performing the following functions:

(a)   Production of sperms,   

(b)   Gland which provide fluid,  

(c) Provides   low temperature (or the formation of sperms)

(d) Common passage for sperm and urine.

Q13.  Draw a longitudinal section of a flower and label the following parts.

(a) Part that produces pollen grain.

(b) Part that transfers male gamete to the female gamete.

(c) Part that is sticky to trap the pollen grain.

(d) Part that develops into a fruit.

(e) Part that is female reproductive structure.

Q14. (a) List two advantages of growing grapes or banana plants through vegetative propagation.

           (b) List the parts of human male reproductive system which contribute fluid to the semen. State two advantages semen offer to the sperms.

          (c) Why is it said that sexual reproduction promotes diversity of characters in the offsprings?

Q15.       What is the function of anther? How does fusion of male and female gametes take place in plants?

Q16.       Explain tissue culture technique. In which area this technique is finding its application?

Q17.      (i)  Give the possibilities for a flower to reproduce by self-pollination.

                (ii) What events take place in a flower after fertilisation has taken place?


Q1.         ‘A trait may be inherited, but may not be expressed’. Justify this statement with the help of a suitable example.

Q2.         Define evolution.  How does it occur? Describe, how fossils provide us evidences in support of evolution.

Q3.         Name any five vegetables generated from a common ancestor through artificial selection rather than natural selection. Also mention the features for which each vegetable is selected?           

Q4.         Does geographical isolation of individuals of a species lead to formation of a new species? Provide a suitable explanation.

Q5.         Why is it more appropriate to compare the process of evolution with’ branches of a tree rather than with a ladder?

Q6.         How did Mendel explain that it is possible that a trait is inherited but not expressed in an organism?

Q7.         (i) What is meant by traits of an individual?

                 (ii) Explain inherited trait and acquired trait.

                 (iii) Define speciation.  List the factors which could lead to rise of a new species.

 Q8. (i) Explain whether traits like eye colour or height is genetically inherited. Do power to lift weights and reading  French also belong to the same category?

        (ii) How do variations affect the evolution of those organisms that reproduce sexually?

Q9. Name the phenomenon that governs the following:

(i) Green beetles living in green bushes are not eaten by the crows.

(ii) Number of blue beetles in green bushes increases only because the red beetles, living there, were trampled by a herd of elephants.

(iii) No ‘medium height plants’ are obtained in F1 generation, upon crossing pure tall and dwarf pea plants.

(iv) Tails of mice were surgically removed for several generations, still mice had tails in the following generations.

(v) A migrant beetle reproduces with the local population; as a result, genes of migrant beetle enter the new population.

Q10. What are fossils? How are they formed? List two methods of determining the age of fossils. Explain in brief the importance of fossils in deciding the evolutionary relationships.

Q11. (a)  What are fossils and how is age of fossils determined?

            (b) During artificial selection, which features of wild cabbage were selected to give rise to

(i) Cabbage and

 (ii) Cauliflower

Q12.  Ovum and sperm are both female and male gametes, respectively. But what is so intricate in sperm which makes it solely responsible for determining the sex of the child? Explain.

Q13. Define the following.

 (a) Speciation

(c) Recessive trait

(e) Genetics

 (b)  Genetic drift

(d) Evolution

Q14.       How does comparing DNA of different species help in tracing evolutionary relationship?


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