SOURCES OF ENERGY
Q1. What is a nuclear waste? What are the hazards of nuclear waste to living things?
Q2. Out of two solar cookers, one was covered by a plane glass slab and the other was left open. Which of the two solar cookers will be more efficient and why?
Q3. People living on hills often get sunburns on their skin. Which component of sunlight is responsible for this effect? Why is this effect generally not observed near sea level?
Q4. Increasing demand of fossil fuels has caused harm to our environments. List its three ill effects (disadvantages). Suggest three measures to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels.
Q5. Compare the advantages of generating energy from bio-mass than getting it from hydropower plant?
Q6. Define the process of nuclear fission. Write the steps involved in generating electricity in a nuclear reactor.
Q7. Explain the principle and working of a biogas plant.
Q8. Draw a neat diagram of a biogas plant and label
(i) inlet of slurry,
(ii) digester and
(iii) gas outlet.
Q9. (a) List any two criteria for selecting a good fuel.
(b) Explain how does burning of fossil fuels cause air and soil pollution.
Q10. ‘What is a good source of energy?
Q11. State the energy transformation taking place at hydropower plants. List two advantages of setting up hydropower plants.
Q12. Explain generation of electricity in a thermal power plant.
Q13. What is biomass? What can be done to obtain bioenergy using biomass?
Q14. Why is there a need to harness non-conventional sources of energy? Give two main reasons.
Q15. On what basis would you classify energy sources as
(a) renewable and non-renewable?
(b) exhaustible and inexhaustible?
Are the options given in (a) and (b) the same?
Q16. What is geothermal energy? How can it be used commercially? List in tabular form three distinguishing features between a thermal power plant and a geothermal power plant.
Q17. Mention why is it not possible to make use of solar cells to meet all our energy needs. State three reasons to support your answer.
Q18. (i) Write four characteristics used for selecting a suitable fuel.
(ii) ‘Gaseous fuels are preferred over solid fuels in chemical industries’. Comment.
Q18. State in brief the process of harnessing kinetic energy of the wind. Mention some limitations of harnessing wind energy on large scale.
Q19. (i) State one limitation of using solar energy available from solar cells.
(ii) What is’ the minimum wind velocity required to obtain useful energy from a windmill?
(iii) Define the term nuclear fission.
Q1. Microorganisms are often referred to as the ‘scavengers of the environment.’ Elaborate.
Q2. Give three differences between food chain and food web.
Q3. We often observe domestic waste decomposing in the bylanes of residential colonies. Suggest, ways to make people realise that the improper disposal of waste is harmful to the environment.
Q4. (i) Ultraviolet radiation from sunlight causes a reaction involving O2 as reactant. What does that produce?
(ii) What does release of phosphates and nitrates in waterbodies lead to?
Q5. Why is Government of India imposing a ban on the use of polythene bags? Suggest two alternatives to these bags and explain plainly how this ban is likely to improve the environment.
Q6. State 10% law. Explain with an example of how energy flows through different trophic levels.
Q7. ‘Vegetarian food habits can sustain a larger number of people’. Justify the statement in terms of food chain.
Q8. What is garbage? What does garbage consist of? What is disposal of waste?
Q9. What will happen if we kill all the organisms in one trophic level?
Q10. Give three examples for reducing the problem of waste disposal? Give any two methods.
Q11. You have been selected to talk on ‘ozone layer and its protection’ in the school assembly on ‘Environment Day’.
(a) Why should ozone layer be protected to save the environment?
(b) List any two ways that you would stress in your talk to bring in awareness amongst your fellow friends that would also help in protection of the ozone layer as well as the environment.
Q12. Write the major cause of ozone depletion. What steps should be taken to limit the damage to ozone layer?
Q13. Suggest one word for each of the following statements/definitions
(a) The physical and biological world where we live in.
(b) Each level of food chain where transfer of energy takes place.
(c) The physical factors like temperature, rainfall, wind and soil of an ecosystem.
Q14. How does study of food chain in an area or habitat help us? Give an example of four-step food chain operating in a large lake.
MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Q1. Give one example each from reuse and recycle, respectively.
Q2. List any four harms of destruction of forests.
Q3. List any four stakeholders which may help in conservation of forests?
Q4. Hydroelectric power is also an indirect form of solar energy. How?
Q5. Why do we need alternative sources of energy?
Q6. Name a greenhouse gas. What happens when its amount increases in the atmosphere?
Q7. How does mining cause pollution?
Q8. ‘Religious beliefs help in the conservation of forest biodiversity’. Justify.
Q9. Use of green and blue coloured dustbin is a good practice and reduces the environment pollution. Justify.
Q10. Describe briet1y the ‘Khadin’ system of rainwater harvesting practised in Rajasthan.
Q11. List four changes you would incorporate in your lifestyle in a move towards sustainable use of available resources.
Q12. Distinguish between inexhaustible and exhaustible resources.
Q13. To achieve sustainable development, can you suggest what steps should be taken?
Q14. List activities that have led to the contamination of the river Ganga.
Q15. What important message is conveyed by Amrita Devi Bishnoi Award for wildlife conservation?
Q16. What was the cause behind the Chipko Andolan and what happened during it? What was the result of the movement?
Q17. Suggest some precautionary measures which should be taken while harvesting rainwater.
Q18. List measures to conserve electricity in your house?
Q19. Carbon dioxide is considered as toxic to mankind. Explain.
Q20. What is ‘Sustainable Management of Natural Resources’ ? Why is it necessary? What one out of reuse and recycle, would you practise in your daily life and why?
Q21. Name a few changes in habits you can undertake to become more environment-friendly?
Q22. (i) Name any two fossil fuels. Why are they so-called?
(ii) Mention the role of forests in conserving the environment. How do the forest get depleted?
Q23. (a) Which is the most rapidly dwindling natural resource in the world?
(b) State the meaning of sustainable management or development.
Q24. Forest resources ought to be used judiciously. Give reason.
Q25. What is water harvesting? Write any two advantages of it.