Q1. What are the adaptations of leaf for photosynthesis?
Q2. State the function of the following in the alimentary canal
(i) Liver (ii) Gall bladder (iii) Villi
Q3. (i) A product is formed in the cytoplasm of our muscles due to breakdown of glucose when there is a lack of oxygen. Name the product and also mention the effect of build-up of this product.
(ii) Differentiate between fermentation in yeast and aerobic respiration on the basis of end products formed.
Q4. What is the logic behind the heavy breathing as we climb up a mountain?
Q5. What is the role of respiratory pigment in respiration? Give one example.
Q6. State reason for the following:
(i) Arteries have thick and elastic walls
(ii) Arteries form capillaries
Q7. Describe translocation? How does translocation take places in plants?
Q8. Major amount of water is selectively reabsorbed by the tubular part of nephron. Write the factors on which the amount of water reabsorbed depends?
Q9. (i) Write the important functions of the structural and functional unit of kidney.
(ii) Write any one function of an artificial kidney:
Q10. State the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and name the by-product. Mention the source of this by-product.
Q11. Enumerate three events which occur during the process of photosynthesis.
Q12. Sweet tooth may lead to tooth decay. Explain why? What is the role of toothpaste in preventing cavities?
Q13. Name three different glands associated with the digestive system in humans. Also, name their secretions.
Q14. List the role of each of the following in our digestive system:
(i) Muscles of Stomach wall
(ii) Hydrochloric acid
Q15. A variegated leaf with green and yellow patches is used for an experiment to prove that chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis. Before the experiment, the green portions (A), and the pale-yellow portions (B), are observed. What will be the colour of ‘A: just before and after the starch test? Also write the equation of photosynthesis and mark, as well as validate from which molecule the by-product is obtained.
Q16. Define breathing. Explain the mechanism of breathing in human beings.
Q17. List three characteristics of lungs which make it an efficient respiratory surface.
Q18. Define transpiration. State its two functions.
Q19. (a) How does the transport of materials in xylem and phloem occurs?
(b) What is translocation?
Q20. (a) What is lymph?
(b) How is composition of lymph different from blood plasma?
(c) List two functions of lymphatic system.
Q21. (i) Why do ventricles have thicker, muscular walls than atria?
(ii) What are peristaltic movements?
(iii) ‘Stomata remain closed in desert plants during day time.’ How do they do photosynthesis?
Q22. Give reasons for: –
(i) Oxygenated and deoxygenated bloods are separate in the heart of mammals.
(ii) Ventricles are thick-walled.
(iii) Herbivores have longer small intestine as compared to carnivores.
Q23. Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their functioning and structure.
Q24. How do leaves of plants aid in excretion?
Q25. (a) Why does the transport of food in plants require living tissues and energy?
(b) Name the components of food that are transported by the living tissues.
Q26. Given below is a diagram showing a section of the human heart.
(a) Identify the parts labelled as X, Y and Z in the above figure.
(b) Among the following given blood vessels, identify those
(i) which carry oxygenated blood.
(ii) which carry deoxygenated blood.
‘Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary vein, Aorta, Vena cava.’
Q27. Our body produces various waste products through different processes. List the waste products with the organs involved in their removal.
Q28. (a) The diagram given below shows parts of the human respiratory system. Identify and name the parts labelled as A-B in the figure.
(b) Explain the working of lungs as organs of excretion.
Q29. Which feature(s) help the plants to make food by the process of photosynthesis?
Q30. ‘Aerobic respiration produces more ATP than anaerobic respiration’. Justify this statement.
Q31. Write the pathway of oxygen travelling from atmosphere into the human body.
Q32. ‘Diffusion pressure cannot deliver oxygen all over the body in bigger animals’. Comment on this statement.
Q33. Blood does not clot in the blood vessels. Give reason.
Q34. How is double circulation different from single circulation?
Q35. Explain, how the circulatory system carries waste products from liver to the kidneys?
Q36. Explain the process by which plants get rid of their excretory products?
CONTROL AND COORDINATION
Q1. Name the main thinking part of the human brain. List any two major functions (other than thinking) of this part.
Q2. Differentiate between the movement in plants and animals.
Q3. There is a close coordination between nerves and hormones. Explain in brief.
Q4. Midbrain connects the forebrain and hindbrain. Write its role in CNS.
Q5. ‘Tropism is directional whereas nastic movement is non-directional. Justify this statement.
Q6. Explain in brief why hormonal responses are slower than reflex actions.
Q7. What are the functions of the relay, motor and sensory neurons in a reflex response?
Q8. Why pancreas is known as mixed gland? Write the names of hormones released from pancreas.
Q9. What is geotropism? Draw a labelled diagram of a potted plant showing positive geotropism and negative geotropism.
Q10. Define positive geotropism and negative geotropism. Give one example of each.
Q11. Give one example of following plants:
(a) Which is
(i) positively phototropic and
(ii) negatively geotropic.
(b) Which is positively hydrotropic as well as positively geotropic?
(c) Which synthesises auxin?
Q12. Name the plant hormone that promotes growth. How do these hormones bring about phototropism in the shoots of a plant?
Q13. Illustrate with the help of a diagram, the effect of auxins in different parts of a plant.
Q14. How do auxins help in bending of stem towards light? Explain.
Q15. Draw a neat diagram of human brain and label on it the following parts:
(i) Mid brain
(ii) Pituitary gland
Q16. Define reflex action. Give one example. Show with the help of a flow diagram the path of the reflex action.
Q17. Write three main functions of the nervous system.
Q18. Name a hormone secreted by:
Q19. State one function of each of the hormones.
Q20. (a) An old man is advised by his doctor to take less sugar in his diet. Name the disease from which the man is suffering. Mention the hormone due to imbalance of which he is suffering from this disease. Which endocrine gland secretes this hormone?
(b) Name the endocrine gland which secretes growth hormone. What will be the effect of the following on a person:
(i) Deficiency of growth hormone.
(ii) Excess secretion of growth hormone.
Q21. (i) Name the hormone secreted by thyroid gland and state its function.
(ii) Why is it important for us to have iodised salt in our diet?
(iii) Name the disease caused due to deficiency of iodine and mention its main symptom.
Q22. Mention one role of each of the following:
Q23. ‘Brain and Spinal cord are two vital organs of our body’. How is our body designed to protect them?
Q24. Name the hormones secreted by the following endocrine glands and mention one function of each.
(a) Thyroid (b) Pituitary
Q25. Auxins promote the growth of a tendril around a support. How?
Q26. (a) Name the hormone which provides wide-range changes in human body and which gland secretes this hormone?
(b) Give a detailed account of the functioning of the above stated hormone.
Q27. What are receptors with reference to nervous system? List three types of receptors and mention their functions. How do receptors pass the information to brain?
Q28. A plant in the laboratory is given increased dose of a hormone, which promotes the development of seedless fruits. Identify the hormone and write its other two functions.
Q29. Adrenal glands are located on top of each kidney. What will happen if these glands do not secrete adrenaline?
HOW DO ORGANISM REPRODUCE
Q1. Explain the term ‘Regeneration’ as used in relation to reproduction of organisms. Describe briefly how regeneration is carried out in multicellular organisms like Hydra?
Q2. List any three advantages of vegetative propagation.
Q3. What is meant by pollination? Name and differentiate between the two modes of pollination in flowering plants.
Q4. What is placenta? Describe its structure. State its functions in case of pregnant human female.
Q5. Give two ‘reasons for the appearance of variations among the progeny formed by sexual reproduction.
Q6. Reproduction is one of the most important characteristics of living beings. Give three reasons in support of the statement.
Q7. What is vegetative propagation? When is it used? List its two uses.
Q8. Define reproduction. How does it help in providing stability to the population of species?
Q9. What is regeneration? Give one example of an organism that shows this process and one organism that does not. Why does regeneration not occur in the latter?
Q10. What happens when:
(a) Accidently, Planaria gets cut into many pieces?
(b) Bryophyllum leaf falls on the wet soil?
(c) On maturation sporangia of Rhizopus bursts?
Q11. (i) Differentiate between binary and multiple fission. Name an organism that reproduces by multiple fission.
(ii) Vegetative propagation is beneficial to plants that are propagated asexually. Give two advantages.
Q12. (i) With the help of a diagram demonstrate the process of regeneration as seen in Planaria.
(ii) Which type of cells are used by such multi-cellular organisms to regenerate?
Q13. Describe reproduction by spores in Rhizopus.
Q14. What is asexual reproduction? Write the process of budding in Hydra.
Q15. Why is DNA copying an essential part of the process of reproduction? What are the advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?
Q16. Write one main difference between asexual and sexual mode of reproduction. Which species is likely to have comparatively better chances of survival-the one reproducing asexually or the one reproducing sexually? Justify your answer.
Q17. How do organisms, whether reproduced asexually or sexually maintain a constant chromosome number through several generations? Explain with the help of suitable example.
Q18. Mention the important post-fertilization changes in the flower.
Q19. What is sexual reproduction? List its four significance.
Q20. Draw a diagram of the longitudinal section of a flower exhibiting germination of pollen on stigma and label.
Q21. State the basic requirement for sexual reproduction? Write the importance of such reproductions in nature.
Q22. List any four steps involved in sexual reproduction and write its two advantages.
Q23. Reproduction is one of the most important characteristics of living beings. Give three reasons in support of the statement.
Q24. What is placenta? Write any two major functions of placenta.
Q25. State the changes that take place in the uterus when:
(i) Implantation of embryo has occurred.
(ii) Female gamete/egg is not fertilised.
Q26. Write the functions of the following parts of human female reproductive system:
(i) Ovary, (ii) Fallopian, (iii) Uterus.
Q27. State briefly the changes that take place in a fertilized egg till birth of the child in the human female reproductive system. What happens to the egg when it is not fertilized?
Q28. DNA content has the tendency to double itself during sexual reproduction due to combining of the genetic materials from two parents. How can the problem of DNA doubling be solved to maintain the consistency of the genetic material throughout the species?
Q29. List four points of significance of reproductive health in a society. Name any two areas related to reproductive health which have improved over the past 50 years in our country.
Q30. (i) Mention two secondary sexual characters in human male.
(ii) Write the dual purpose served by urethra males?
Q31. List three techniques that have been developed to prevent pregnancy. Which one of these techniques is not meant for males? How does the use of these techniques have a direct impact on the health and prosperity of a family?
Q32. What is contraception? Name any two methods. How does the use of these methods have a direct effect on the health and prosperity of a family? State any three points.
Q33. State one function of each of the following parts of human male reproductive system.
(i) Vas deferens, (ii) Testes, (iii) Prostate gland.
Q34. (i) Explain, what are unisexual and bisexual organisms, giving an example for each.
(ii) What type of pollination would occur by insects?
Q35. What is implantation? Where does it take place? Mention the structure involved and its function.
HEREDITY AND EVOLUTION
Q1. In a monohybrid cross, pink coloured flowers are dominant over white coloured flowers. If parent plants belong to pure breeding dominant trait and pure breeding recessive trait, what will be the phenotype or morphological feature of F1-generation? If F1 plants are self-fertilised, what would be the phenotypic ratio or how many dominant and recessive traits will be produced in the progeny? Explain with an illustration.
Q2. Distinguish between acquired and inherited characters with an example of each.
Q3. Traits that are acquired during lifetime do not result in evolution. Why? Give atleast two examples to support your answer.
Q4. The two areas of study namely ‘evolution’ and ‘classification’ are interlinked. Justify the statement.
Q5. What are homologous structures? Give an example. Is it necessary that homologous structures always have a common ancestor?
Q6. Mention three important features of fossils which help in the study of evolution.
Q7. How do Mendel’s experiment show that traits are inherited independently?
Q8. If we cross-bred tall (dominant) pea plant with pure-bred dwarf (recessive) pea plant, we will get plants of F1 generation. If we now self-cross the pea plant of F1 generation, we obtain pea plants of F2 generation.
(i) What do the plants of F1 generation look like?
(ii) State the ratio of tall plant to dwarf plants in F2 generation.
(iii) State the type of plants not found in F1generation but appeared in F2 generation. Write the reason for the same.
Q9. What is DNA copying? State Its Importance.
Q10. (i) Name the unit of inheritance. What is its functions?
(ii) How are inherited traits different from acquired traits? Give example.
Q11. (i) Define Genetics.
(ii) Who is regarded as the ‘Father of Genetics’? Name the plant on which he performed his experiment.
(iii) Why did he select that specific plant for his experiments?
Q12. How did Mendel interpret his result to show that traits may be dominant or recessive? Describe briefly.
Q13. ‘Different species use different strategies to determine sex of a newborn individual. It can be environmental cues or genetically determined.’ Explain the statement by giving example for each strategy.
Q14. A blue colour flower plant denoted by BB is crossbred with a white colour flower plant denoted by ww.
(i) State the colour of flower we would expect in their F1progeny.
(ii) Write the percentage of plants bearing white flower in F2 generation when the flowers of F1 plants were selfed.
(iii) State the expected ratio of the genotype BB: Ba: ww in the F2 progeny.
Q15. The genotype of green-stemmed tomato plants is denoted by GG and that of purple-stemmed tomato plants as gg. When these two plants are crossed:
(i) What colour of stem would you expect in their F1 progeny?
(ii) Give the percentage of purple-stemmed plant if F2 plants are self-pollinated.
(iii) In what ratio would you find the green and purple colour in the F1 progeny?
Q16. In Mendel’s monohybrid cross between tall and short pea plants, all offsprings were tall. What does this tell us about the trait? What is the ratio of tall and short plants in the F2 generation?
Q17. What are chromosomes? Explain how in sexually reproducing organisms the number of chromosomes in the progeny is maintained.
Q18.‘It is a matter of chance whether a couple will give birth to a male child or a female child’. Justify this statement with the help of a flow chart showing the fusion of sex chromosomes.
Q19.In human beings, the statistical probability of getting either a male or a female child is 50%. Give reasons and explain with the help of a diagram.
Q20. Explain the following: (a) Speciation (b) Natural Selection
Q21. ‘Natural Selection and Speciation leads to evolution’. Justify this statement.
Q22. Explain with an example for each, how the following provides evidences in favour of evolution in organisms:
(i) Homologous organs
(ii) Analogous organs
Q23. List three main factors responsible for the speciation and briefly describe each of them.
Q24. Define evolution. How does it occur? Explain how fossils provide evidences in support of evolution?
Q25. What are homologous organs? Give one example. Can the wings of a butterfly and the wings of bat be regarded as homologous? Give reason in support of your answers.
Q26. What are fossils? State their importance in the study of evolution with the help of a suitable example.
Q27. (i) Which of the following fossil is invertebrate and which one is vertebrate?
(a) Dinosaur, (b) Ammonite.
(ii) How can the age of fossil be ascertained? State in brief any two methods.
Q28. Give an example of the characteristics being used to determine how close two species are in evolutionary terms.
Q29.There are two different types of organs, homologous and analogous. Differentiate between them by giving three points.
Q30.‘Variations that confer an advantage to an individual organism only will survive in a population.’ Justify.
Q31. (i) A husband has 46 chromosomes, his wife has also 46 chromosomes. Then why don’t their offsprings have 46 pairs of chromosomes, which is obtained by the fusion of male and female gametes?
(ii) “Geographical isolation is not a major factor in the speciation of a self-pollinating plant species.” Justify this statement with the help of an example.
Q32. What are heredity and variation? Why did Mendel select garden pea plant to conduct his genetics experiments?
Q33. ‘Variations that confer advantage to an individual organism only will survive in population’. Justify.
Q34. What does help scientists to reconstruct the pattern and trends that existed in the history of life on the Earth?
Q35. What do you understand about independent inheritance of traits?
Q36. A man having blood group ‘O’ marries a woman with blood group ‘B’. What will be the blood group of their children?
Q37. How are contributions of Darwin different from that of Mendel?
Q38. How do homologous organs help in determining the evolutionary trend?